The Effects of Breathing on Emotion and Behavior
Nose breathing imposes approximately 50 percent more resistance to the air stream in normal individuals than does mouth breathing, resulting in 10-20 percent more oxygen uptake.
Cottle, 1972:Rohrer, 1915
Mouth breathing: Adverse effects on facial growth, health, academics, and behavior
Nitric oxide inhaled via nasal respiration has been shown to increase oxygen exchange efficiency and increase blood oxygen by 18%, while improving the lungs’ ability to absorb oxygen.
Growth & Development 2005
Assessment of the body posture of mouth-breathing children and adolescents.
306 mouth-breathing and 124 nasal-breathing children. ‘Postural problems were significantly more common among children in the group with mouth breathing syndrome’. Interestingly, researchers noted that mouth breathers were more likely to be male.
Conti PB, Sakano E, Ribeiro MA, Schivinski CI, Ribeiro JD. Journal Pediatrics (Rio J).2011;(Jul-Aug;87(4)):471-9
Towards Restoration of Continuous Nasal Breathing as the Ultimate Treatment Goal in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea
We believe elimination of oral breathing, i.e., restoration of nasal breathing during wake and sleep, may be the only valid “finish line” in pediatric sleep disordered breathing.
Pediatr Neonatol Biol 6th September 2014
Postural Alterations and Pulmonary Function of Mouth-Breathing Children
Mouth-breathing children have changes in their stomatognathic system, which result in head projection, stress increase in the scapular belt muscles and postural adaptations. Although thoracic shape and posture can influence ventilatory dynamics, we didn’t find studies addressing pulmonary function of mouth-breathing children.
This study aimed at analyzing the posture of mouth-breathing children, and studying the existence of correlations between posture and pulmonary volumes.
Mouth-breathing children have postural alterations which increases with age and also reduced spirometry values. The vital capacity reduction correlates negatively with head projection.
Biomechanics and Exercise Capacity in Children
To evaluate submaximal exercise tolerance and respiratory muscle strength in relation to forward head posture (FHP) and respiratory mode in children, comparing mouth-breathing (MB) children with nasal-breathing (NB) children.
Respiratory biomechanics and exercise capacity were negatively affected by MB. The presence of moderate FHP acted as a compensatory mechanism in order to improve respiratory muscle function
Exercise Capacity, Respiratory Mechanicsand Posture in Mouth Breathers
Chronic and persistent mouth or oral breathing (OB) has been associated with postural changes. Although posture changes in OB causes decreased respiratory muscle strength, reduced chest expansion and impaired pulmonary ventilation with consequences in the exercise capacity, few studies have verified all these assumptions.
To evaluate exercise tolerance, respiratory muscle strength and body posture in
oral breathing (OB) compared with nasal breathing(NB) children.
OB children had cervical spine postural changes and decreased respiratory muscle strength compared with NB.
Breathing Pattern and Head Posture: Changes in Craniocervical Angles
The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects.
Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.
Airway Collapsibility in Normal Sleeping Subjects
Conclusion: We conclude that mouth opening increases UA collapsibility during sleep and that mouth opening may contribute to the occurrence of sleep-related breathing abnormalities.